12 Mushrooms and How to Eat Them
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12 Mushrooms and How to Eat Them

OK, so you love mushrooms. But which ones do you use when? And what's the best recipe for that "chef's assortment" you impulsively picked up at the market? Here's what you need to know to make the most of the 12 most popular mushrooms.

As with the wide world of cheese, one of the joys of eating mushrooms is experiencing the unique flavors of the different varieties. From meaty portabellos and shiitakes to mild oyster mushrooms and chanterelles, you'll just have to taste the rainbow of mushrooms to decide which one is your favorite. With their unique flavor profiles, mushrooms can be happily paired for different effect with steak, cream, pasta, wine, onions, in breakfast dishes with eggs, and (of course) cheese.

Here, we take a look at the defining characteristics and preparations for the most popular dozen mushrooms; read on and celebrate the glories of fungus!

Common Button/White Mushrooms

Button Mushrooms

Button mushrooms have the honor of being both the most common and least expensive mushroom in the United States. These versatile, everyday mushrooms have a mild flavor that gets stronger when cooked and blends well with other ingredients. Sturdy enough to hold up in sauces, stir-fries, and stews, sliced and sautéed button mushrooms are also what come to mind as classic toppings for pizza and mushroom-smothered cheeseburgers.

extra-virgin olive oil, lemon, greens, ground black pepper, garlic and 4 more
sliced mushrooms, salt, crushed garlic, onion, Worcestershire sauce and 2 more
yellow onion, unsalted butter, button mushrooms, salt, nutmeg and 5 more
butter, button mushrooms, yellow onion, salt, vegetable oil, pot roast and 4 more
tomato paste, coriander powder, black pepper, cloves, pepper and 10 more
green onions, garlic, white button mushrooms, flat leaf parsley and 2 more

Cremini Mushrooms, aka "Baby Bellas"

Cremini Mushrooms

Cremini, or brown mushrooms, are almost identical biologically to white mushrooms. You can use them interchangeably in recipes that call for white mushrooms to add a slightly earthier, more full-bodied mushroom flavor. Like white mushrooms, the hardy cremini stand up well to slow cooking soups and stews. Oh, and that name, "baby bella"? It's exactly what it sounds like: cremini mushrooms are indeed immature, or baby, portabella mushrooms. More on that after these recipes.

freshly ground black pepper, cremini mushrooms, thyme, fresh parsley leaves and 6 more
whole wheat flour, salt, baby portobello mushrooms, soy sauce and 9 more
cremini mushrooms, fresh parsley, chicken breasts, butter, white wine and 2 more
Guided
salt, cremini mushrooms, black pepper, garlic powder, shredded Italian cheese and 6 more
non-dairy milk, garlic powder, tapioca flour, baby portobello mushrooms and 8 more
worcestershire, green bell pepper, yellow onion, vegetable broth and 16 more

Portabella Mushrooms

Portabello Mushrooms

Large, substantial portabella (also called portobello) mushroom caps are the meatiest of the mushrooms, good for grilling and used as a healthy substitute in traditional meat dishes. The portabella is simply a cremini mushroom that's been allowed to grow to maturity, producing a wide, flat cap about the size of your palm. On the underside, you'll see dark gills, which should be removed before cooking. Freshness tip: look for portabellas whose gills still have pink undertones.

The stems can be quite woody and are typically composted or used to flavor soup broth. The taste of a grilled portabella mushroom cap is best described as meaty and earthy but the real meat-like quality comes from the chewy texture, which provides a sensation similar to biting into a medium-rare steak.

rosemary, basil, thyme, sea salt, olive oil, balsamic vinegar and 2 more
cherry tomatoes, olive oil, fresh mozzarella, portobello mushroom caps and 1 more
fresh parsley, freshly ground pepper, salt, plain dry breadcrumbs and 3 more
cayenne pepper, cumin, fine sea salt, smoked paprika, olive oil and 16 more
garlic, medium onion, olive oil, portabella mushrooms, black pepper and 13 more
portobello mushrooms, lemon, garlic, kosher salt, juice, avocado oil and 1 more

Morels

Morel Mushrooms

Hard-to-find morels are a springtime treat with a distinctive deep and earthy flavor and sponge-like appearance. If you see them fresh, buy them while you can! The short season for morels means they'll be gone in a flash. Fortunately, many recipes call for dried morels, which can easily be found online, bringing us the pleasure of morel's nutty flavor year round. Remember: morels should ALWAYS be cooked they can make you sick if eaten raw.

grated lemon zest, whole wheat bread, sea salt, snap peas, hazelnuts and 9 more
eggs, olive oil, shallot, crème fraiche, butter, dried tomatoes and 6 more
garganelli, lemon, tarragon, frozen peas, shallot, garlic clove and 7 more
morel mushrooms, freshly ground pepper, asparagus, olive oil and 2 more
salt, extra-virgin olive oil, rigatoni, butter, Parmesan, pepper and 3 more
Fontina, eggs, freshly ground black pepper, morel mushrooms, unsalted butter and 2 more

Oyster Mushrooms

Oyster Mushrooms

Oyster mushrooms get their name from the shell-like shape of the caps, which grow on the side of trees in clustered stacks reminiscent of stadium seating. While they do have a distinctive shape, be careful when shopping not to confuse them with the long, thick-stemmed king oyster mushroom. Despite its name, the king oyster is a quite different species altogether.

Oyster mushrooms are known for their mild yet complex flavor and come in a range of colors from blue-gray to salmon to golden-brown, with slight variations in taste. Orange-hued oyster mushrooms, for example, will tend to have a light nutty flavor. All varieties taste best paired with other mild flavors or even better, served alone, sautéed in butter. While oyster mushrooms are on the fragile side, you'll still want to remove the tougher stem before cooking and be sure to eat them while young and somewhat firm. Because of their delicate nature, they're often used in Asian soups, stir-fries, and other quick-cooking preparations.

oyster mushrooms, breadcrumbs, fresh parsley leaves, minced garlic and 4 more
water, oyster mushrooms, garlic cloves, water, beans, hoisin sauce and 10 more
steamed white rice, peanut oil, sake, sugar, light soy sauce and 3 more
kosher salt, freshly ground pepper, oyster mushrooms, flaky sea salt and 4 more
ground black pepper, red onion, unsalted butter, sourdough bread and 8 more
olive oil, red wine, oyster mushrooms, heavy cream, salt, pepper

Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitakes are meaty mushrooms similar to portabellas, if without their signature massive girth. These mushrooms have an intense and woodsy flavor, with smaller shiitakes offering a tender texture and larger ones providing more robust flavor. A chewier mushroom, shiitakes are a good choice to add both texture and umami to flavor-rich dishes.

If using fresh, the woody stem should be removed and saved to add to stocks. Like morels, shiitakes should never be eaten raw, so keep these off your salads unless you've sautéed them first. If fresh shiitakes aren't available, there are many recipes that call for dried shiitakes for an even more intense mushroom flavor. In fact, dried shiitakes have been noted as an excellent substitute for the much pricier wild porcini with a deeper flavor to boot.

apple cider vinegar, maple syrup, paprika, oil, apple cider vinegar and 9 more
sesame seeds, shiitake mushrooms, bean sprouts, mirin, tamari and 5 more
sugar, soy sauce, fresh ginger, dried shiitake mushrooms, sherry vinegar
sesame oil, sesame seeds, garlic, shiitakes, soy sauce, rice vinegar and 8 more
eggs, red onion, chili flakes, dried shiitake mushrooms, garlic and 3 more
olive oil, fresh shiitake mushrooms, dried thyme, white wine and 6 more

Hen of the Woods, aka Maitake Mushrooms

Maitake Mushrooms

One of the most delicate mushrooms, the Hen of the Woods mushroom sports a tattered head held together by a sturdier core at the base. Also known as maitake or sheepshead (but not to be confused with chicken of the woods), this shaggy clump of mushroom is most often prepared simply by breaking and tearing the mushroom into bits and pieces by hand. These mushrooms have an earthy, woodsy, and somewhat spicy flavor that helps makes dishes taste richer. Hen of the Woods are excellent when roasted or sautéed in butter, allowing the delicate edges to curl up and crisp.

wild rice, ground black pepper, extra virgin olive oil, fresh lemon juice and 5 more
shallot, maitake mushrooms, butter, thyme, fresh gnocchi, grated Parmesan cheese and 1 more
crushed red pepper flakes, onion, garlic, dried oregano, chopped fresh chives and 8 more
extra virgin olive oil, fresh thyme leaves, dry white wine, buttermilk and 10 more
kosher salt, unsalted butter, wild mushrooms, chopped fresh chives and 4 more
garlic, sage leaves, maitake mushroom, vegan cheese, salt, paprika and 8 more

Enoki Mushrooms

Enoki Mushrooms

The enoki mushroom, sometimes labeled as enokitake, is a very mild, crunchy Asian favorite that is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Pale, long, and skinny little mushrooms, these are often eaten quick fried in little bundles or scattered atop a hot dish as a garnish after cooking.

To prepare, cut off the connected stem end and separate the mushrooms with your fingers into smaller clumps. Enoki mushrooms are quite good for soup, where they can be put in raw to just barely cook themselves in the hot broth while adding a textural crunch to the dish. Other preparations involve a quick stir fry where the mushrooms jump in and out of the pan in a flash.

light soy sauce, light soy sauce, garlic, oil, scallion, scallion and 6 more
sesame oil, gochujang, silken tofu, mushrooms, eggs, sesame seeds and 5 more
mirin, soy sauce, enoki mushroom
gochujang, maple syrup, garlic, coconut oil, gochugaru, mushrooms and 12 more
sugar, salt, ground black pepper, oyster sauce, soy sauce, ground black pepper and 7 more
taro root, enoki mushrooms, toasted sesame oil, fresh shiitake mushrooms and 5 more

Chanterelles

Chanterelle Mushrooms

Chanterelles are the belle of the ball at the wild mushroom dance. Delicate yellow or orange in color, chanterelles look like little golden horns with their inverted bell shape, and may even smell faintly of apricot. The have a gentle nutty flavor with hints of pepper and spice, making chanterelles a good substitute for morels or the even rarer hedgehog mushroom. Although firmer than the maitake or enoki mushrooms, chanterelles are still best prepared by tearing them instead of chopping. Like many of the other mushrooms here, they can have tough stems which can be removed and added to homemade stocks to make the most of this exceptional flavor.

corn tortillas, cheese, green onion, unsalted butter, sea salt and 5 more
chanterelle mushrooms, garlic cloves, broth, salt, grated Parmesan cheese and 7 more
butter, ground black pepper, grated Gruyère cheese, butter, flour and 7 more
pepper, salt, chanterelle mushrooms, dry white wine, sweet paprika and 8 more
kosher salt, bacon, garlic, freshly ground black pepper, chanterelles and 3 more
fresh parsley, olive oil, vegetable oil, Parmesan, fresh lemon juice and 9 more

Porcini Mushrooms

Porcini Mushrooms

Porcini mushrooms are some of the most highly prized in the culinary world, known for their bold, nutty flavor. Porcinis impart a deep, pure mushroom flavor to any dish, and are classically used in many Italian recipes. Their hearty flavor and meaty bite work well with pasta and grains, thick soups, and in flavorful gravies.

Porcinis are bulbous, both in cap and stem, with a classic mushroom-brown hue. They may be easier to find dried; if they're cost-prohibitive to buy, you can substitute dried shiitakes easily in the recipes below.

salt, unsalted butter, all purpose flour, large eggs, dried porcini mushrooms and 1 more
jerusalem artichokes, country bread, olive oil, puff pastry, coarse salt and 9 more
garlic, freshly grated Parmesan, shallots, extra-virgin olive oil and 7 more
sea salt, rosemary leaves, olive oil, large garlic clove, dried porcini mushrooms and 2 more
Italian parsley, waxy potatoes, porcini mushrooms, garlic cloves and 2 more
warm water, soy sauce, salt, olive oil, pepper, flour, dried porcini mushrooms and 4 more

Truffles and Truffle Oil

Truffles

Only the truffle, one of the most expensive gourmet foods in the world, can give the porcini a run for its money (or yours). This hard, bulbous mushroom grows underground; historically dogs and pigs have been used to help truffle hunters sniff them out in the wild. The two main varieties are the white or "Alba" truffle from the Piedmont region of Italy and the black "Perigord" truffle grown in France, Italy, and Spain.

Despite being so hard that they are typically served shaved, truffles are among the most perishable of mushrooms, with peak flavor lasting only 3-4 days. Truffles have a very strong, almost musky flavor associated with the finest of dining; however, you can more affordably boost your day-to-day cooking by using a small amount of truffle oil as with many of the elegant recipes that follow.

seasoning, white onions, ground chuck, mayonnaise, mushrooms and 10 more
truffle oil, fresh flat leaf parsley, shredded mozzarella cheese and 5 more
unsalted butter, water, olive oil, pepper, dried porcini mushrooms and 11 more
dry red wine, extra-virgin olive oil, ground black pepper, truffle salt and 9 more
lemon juice, spring onion, truffle, whole milk
shallots, butter, olive oil, diced celery, chicken wings, low salt chicken broth and 5 more

Straw Mushrooms

Straw Mushrooms

Straw mushrooms, sometimes called paddy straw mushrooms, are easily recognizable for their small, pointy shape and dark caps. Most often purchased canned here in the States, these bite-size 'shrooms are frequently seen in stir fry dishes and classic Thai soups such as Tom Yum and Tom Kha Gai. If you do use canned straw mushrooms, remember that they've already been partially cooked during canning, so they're well suited for quick cooking weeknight recipes.

fish sauce, oil, garlic, spinach, straw mushrooms
Pro
shallot, cilantro sprigs, chili paste in soybean oil, fish sauce and 10 more
straw mushrooms, fresh lemon juice, water, kaffir lime leaves and 8 more
boiling water, firm tofu, straw mushrooms, dried shiitake mushrooms and 12 more
snow peas, straw mushrooms, coconut milk, water chestnuts, brown sugar and 16 more
lily buds, baby corn, bamboo shoots, straw mushrooms, bean curd sticks and 17 more

Can't Decide? Mix 'Em Up!

Can't choose just one? Me neither. Here are just a few ideas for when one kind of mushroom just isn't enough!

lemon, garlic clove, ricotta, gruyère, egg, thyme, shallots, puff pastry and 2 more
extra virgin olive oil, fresh chives, Italian parsley leaves and 14 more
finely chopped fresh parsley, dry white wine, chicken cutlets and 2 more

Want to know more about mushrooms? Read Mushrooms 101

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